Draft & Review

Paraphrasing Activity

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Daniel Go

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Daniel Go

Paraphrasing is when we put another person’s ideas into our own words. Even though we use our own words, we must credit the author/source for the idea (see “Incorporating Secondary Sources” for more information). Although paraphrasing is more difficult than incorporating a direct quotation, it is preferred and expected when expressing an author’s idea rather than his/her original words.

Quick Tips

  • The paraphrase should be roughly the same length as the original statement.
  • The “syntax,” or the sentence structure, of the paraphrase should be completely different from the syntax of the original statement. For example, if the original statement has a dependent clause followed by an independent clause, the paraphrase should not use this same structure.
  • Use different words than the ones the author uses (you may use one or two key words/phrases).
  • Read the original statement a couple of times, and then put it away or cover it up. Then, write down the idea the best you can in your own words. Refrain from looking at the quote until you are confident you have captured the main idea accurately. Check your final version against the original to make sure you have used a different sentence structure and different words.

Activity

  1. Group up with 2-3 of your peers who also need to practice paraphrasing.
  2. Choose a short passage/statement (3-5 sentences long) from each person’s research. Copy this passage/statement to a shared Google doc, and make sure to put it in quotation marks and include a proper citation.
  3. Now, spend 5-10 minutes individually paraphrasing one of the passages for each “paraphrasing round.” Make sure everyone is paraphrasing the same passage and make sure to include a citation.
  4. Copy your individual paraphrases to the Google doc beneath the original passage.
  5. As a group, go through each paraphrase and determine which one(s) works best and why. Discuss how the other paraphrases could be improved, and make these improvements together.
  6. Share-out: Post a copy or screenshot of your work to the comments thread.

Resources

 

Incorporating Secondary Sources

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Warren R.M. Stewart

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Warren R.M. Stewart

When incorporating secondary sources into your argument, there are three crucial components you must include to document your sources properly:

  1. introducing the paraphrase/quotation;
  2. citing the source of the paraphrase/quotation;
  3. and connecting the paraphrase/quotation to your argument.

Introducing the Paraphrase/Quotation

  • Use a “signal phrase” or “author/source tag” to refer to the author or source before incorporating the actual paraphrase or quotation.
  • Use a complete sentence followed by a colon to anchor a direct quotation. Note that the “anchor” sentence must logically introduce the idea expressed in the quote.

Note: You’ll need to check the guidelines for the specific requirements of your formatting style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc). (APA format used here.)

Citing the Source

By signaling to your readers the name(s) of the author or source associated with your paraphrase or quotation, you have done part of the work of documenting your source–but there are a few more steps to ensure your citation is complete.

  • When page numbers are available, reference them in parentheses.
  • If you choose not to include a signal phrase, the author/source name must be included in the parentheses along with the page number.
  • If quoting directly, make sure to use quotation marks!
  • If paraphrasing, make sure it is clear where your ideas begin and end and where the paraphrase begins and ends.

Note: You’ll need to check the guidelines for the specific requirements of your formatting style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc). (APA format used here.)

Examples

  1. Glenn (1994) argues that “when the delivery of purposeful silence is considered a strategic choice, its presence resonates with meaning and intention, just like that of the spoken word” (p. 282).
  2. Silence is often associated with passiveness; however, Glenn (1994) argues that silence can be active and rhetorically productive: “[W]hen the delivery of purposeful silence is considered a strategic choice, its presence resonates with meaning and intention, just like that of the spoken word” (p. 282).
  3. Although silence is often associated with passiveness, “when the delivery of purposeful silence is considered a strategic choice, its presence resonates with meaning and intention, just like that of the spoken word” (Glenn, 1994, p. 282).

Connecting to Your Argument

Finally, the paraphrase/quotation needs to clearly connect to the argument or main point of the paragraph. It’s the writer’s job to make sure the audience understands how the paraphrase/quotation supports the argument/main point.

Review this resource for some examples of connecting paraphrases and quotations to the main point.

Activity

1. Use the template below to draft a sentence that includes the 3 parts every quotation or paraphrase should include:

According to [insert author/source name], [insert paraphrase or quotation] [insert page number].

In their [insert copyright year of source] study, [insert author/source name] found [insert paraphrase or quotation][insert page number].

[insert author/source name] argues/explores/notes/examines [insert paraphrase or quotation][insert page number].

2.  Now, take one of your paraphrases or quotations from above and follow-up with a sentence or two that clearly connects it to your main point.

3.  Share-out: Post a copy or screenshot of your work to the comments thread.

Reviewing with SafeAssign

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Marco Tedaldi

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Marco Tedaldi

Through Blackboard, Old Dominion University has the plagiarism detector application SafeAssign. SafeAssign can be a way for you to check how well you are incorporating secondary sources into your text. To use SafeAssign, your instructor must first have it turned on in your Blackboard course area. If your instructor has SafeAssign turned on and allows you to submit drafts in advance, complete the following activity:

Activity

1. Submit a completed draft of your essay (including full bibliographic resources at the end). Once you have submitted your essay, you may need to wait a while (a few minutes to a couple of hours) for the program to produce a SafeAssign Originality Report.

2. Once you have access to your report, carefully look at all of the sections that SafeAssign highlighted. Use those highlights as a reminder to verify that you are incorporating other sources correctly (Do you introduce them? properly cite them? connect the source material back to your argument? etc.). Sometimes you may have sections highlighted that are correct; the system is just saying it is material from another source.

3. Write a reflection about your review and revision process, covering the elements listed below.

  • date & time uploading the draft
  • date & time reviewing the report
  • general summary of the types of things that were highlighted in your draft
  • brief description of specific elements of your project you will change based on your report results

2. Share-out: Copy/paste your reflection about your review session in the comments thread.

Writing Introductions

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Corrado Alisonno

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Corrado Alisonno

Introductions for academic writing assignments can be a tricky affair. Your main goal for an introduction should be to quickly bring the reader into the academic conversation to which your paper is contributing.

Although there are a number of ways to write an introduction, a good strategy is to use the following format:

Begin with a brief personal or real-world anecdote/story related to your research paper’s topic. The idea here is to grab the reader with something relatable and engaging before you throw a bunch of authors’ names, research, and data at them. Your anecdote will also help show them how your research relates to real-world experiences.

Next, you should mention two or three articles from your research and what those authors say about the research topic. This should come right after your anecdote. Write one or two sentences about each article and what they say about the issue related to your research. These statements should be large statements about the authors’ arguments in their articles. The articles’ abstracts are a good place from which to draw this information.

  • Example: Johnson (1997) argues X. Wilson (2001), meanwhile, states Y.

Third, you need to address the gap in the field that your research is addressing. You’ve just stated what other authors think–now is the time to state where you feel that the field has fallen short in some regard and how your research will address that gap. It might look something like this:

  • Example: Despite the current research in the field, it is still unclear how X

Lastly, you want to close your introduction with your thesis statement. The thesis statement is one clearly-written sentence that states the central argument of your research. The rest of your paper should relate to this central claim and support it.

  • Example: In this paper, I argue X.

Activity

1. Try writing an introduction to your research paper using these four components. Although there is no hard and fast rule for how long it should be, a good rule of thumb for, say, a 10-page research paper, is about a one-page introduction (250-300 words, double spaced).

2. Share-out: Upload a photo of your written introduction in the comments thread below.

Reviewing with the Writing Center or Smarthinking

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Topeka Library

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Topeka Library

Old Dominion University has an on campus Writing Center as well as Smarthinking (an online tutorial option).

Activity 

1. Make an appointment to work with a tutor in the writing center or through Smarthinking. When you go for your appointment, be sure to take both your draft of the assignment as well as any official assignment prompts or guidelines.

2. Write a reflection about your visit that addresses the following:

  • date & time of the appointment;
  • name of the tutor;
  • general summary of what you discussed;
  • brief description of specific elements of your project you will change based on your tutoring session; and
  • brief description of the writing and revising strategies you and your tutor discussed; include ideas about whether or not you would use this strategy in future writing scenarios.

3. Share-out: Copy/paste your reflection about your review session in the comments thread.

Self-Review: Paragraph Analysis

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Alan

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Alan

Activity

  1. Make a copy of your current draft of a research project.
  2. For EVERY paragraph in the draft, answer the following questions:
    • What is the main topic of this paragraph?
    • How does this paragraph function in the argument/arrangement of the paper?
    • How is this paragraph connected to the one above?
    • How is this paragraph connected to the one below?
  3. After completing this analysis, briefly reflect about what you learned. What sections of your paper will you revise? How? Why?
  4. Share-out: Copy/paste your reflection in the comments.

Face-to-Face Round Robin Peer Review

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by H is for Home

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by H is for Home

Getting Ready

  1. Print three copies of a mostly completed draft.
  2. Group together with two peers from your class. Exchange contact information.
  3. Decide on a time and place to meet. If not the classroom, consider a commons area on campus or a local coffeehouse.
  4. When you meet, bring your printed drafts, pens (preferably different colors), and highlighters.
  5. Exchange papers with one another, making sure everyone has a copy of each draft. In a group of three, each person will review two drafts.

Activity

Round Robin Peer Review

The goal of this activity is to conduct peer reviews in “rounds.” Follow these steps, and then repeat until everyone has had her or his draft read, reviewed, and discussed.

  1. Set a timer for 15 minutes.
  2. Choose whose draft will be addressed first. This means, both the other people in the group need to focus on the same draft during this round. The person whose draft is being addressed reads one of the other two drafts.
  3. When 15 minutes have passed, check with each group member to see if more time is needed to complete the review. If more time is needed, set the timer again for the agreed upon time.
  4. Now, reviewers should take turns discussing their feedback. The person whose work is being reviewed should take notes even though the reviewers will have provided written comments. Sometimes the way we hear feedback differs from the way we read feedback and can, therefore, be productive in different ways.
  5. The feedback session should be conversational and promote dialogue. For example, the person whose draft is being discussed should feel free to respond to what is being said at any given point in the conversation.
  6. When the feedback has been discussed, allow a minute or two for questions and/or clarifications from the writer whose work was reviewed.
  7. Repeat the above steps for each person in the group. Note: At some point, depending on how many people are in the group, a back-to-back discussion will take place as all drafts will have been read.
  8. Share-out: Post a reflection of your experience in the comments; specifically discuss what changes you will make based on the feedback you received.

Questions for Round Robin Peer Review

  1. What did you like about the draft? How/why did you like it? How might the author build on that section?
  2. What sections are confusing to you? How/why? Ask your classmates questions that would help you to make sense of the section.
  3. Do you have any unanswered questions after you finished reading the draft? What are they?
  4. Where would you like to know more?
  5. Does the draft provide meet all the expectations stated in the assignment prompt? If not, what is it missing?
  6. Are there parts of the draft that might be better moved to a different place within the draft? If so, make a suggestion for how the content might be better organized.
  7. What parts of the draft work best and why?
  8. If you were responsible for revising a portion of this draft, which section would you revise and why?

Note: Peer reviewers should make detailed notes directly on drafts in response to the questions above. Place comments as close to the portion of the draft to which you are responding but also feel free to use the back of pages to comment on larger issues.

Google Docs Peer Review

type4

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Solo

Activity

Step One

  1. Partner with 2-3 other people in class to form groups of 3-4.
  2. Create a folder on Google Drive and title it something like “Peer Review: Group _________.” Share this folder amongst all the group members. Note: Only one student in the group needs to do this.
  3. Post a copy of your draft to the group folder. Note: Please ensure that you create a Google Doc for your draft rather than uploading a Word doc; otherwise, your peers will not be able to comment directly on your work.

Step Two

  1. Choose one person’s draft to get started. Note: Each person should receive feedback from at least two people in the group.
  2. Quickly read through the draft once in its entirety to get a sense of its purpose, context, and audience.
  3. Now, read through the draft again, this time using the questions below to guide you through providing constructive feedback to your peer.
  4. Use the “comment” feature in Google docs to provide your feedback. Highlight a portion of the draft to which you are directly responding and anchor your comment there. This way, your feedback is directly tied to the place in the draft on which you are commenting. Here are some help videos that demonstrate commenting in Google Docs: Discussions in Google Docs; Comments in Google Drive.
  5. Share-out: In the comments below, post 2-3 key points of feedback that you received during this peer review.

Peer Review Questions

  1. What did you like about the draft? How/why did you like it? How might the author build on that section?
  2. What sections are confusing to you? How/why? Ask your classmates questions that would help you to make sense of the section.
  3. Do you have any unanswered questions after you finished reading the draft? What are they?
  4. Where would you like to know more?
  5. Does the draft meet all the expectations stated in the assignment prompt? If not, what is it missing?
  6. Are there parts of the draft that might be better moved to a different place within the draft? If so, make a suggestion for how the content might be better organized.
  7. What parts of the draft work best and why?
  8. If you were responsible for revising a portion of this draft, which section would you revise and why?

 

Audio-Recorded “Big Picture” Peer Review

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Paco CT

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Paco CT

The goal of this peer review is to provide audio-recorded feedback that focuses on global, or “big picture,” elements of your peers’ papers. Using an audio-recording technology will allow you to talk through your feedback out loud and will, in turn, allow your peers to hear your words rather than reading them. Research on audio-recorded feedback suggests that students find it useful and that constructive criticism often comes across less “harshly,” thus making the process feel less critical.

Activity

1. Select an audio-recording technology. Some that you might consider are SoundCloud (web-based), Quicktime (MAC computer application), Windows Media Player (PC computer application), or Audacity (download application from web).

2. Choose two other students’ drafts (preferably students who have not yet had their draft reviewed) to read and reply to as a peer reviewer.

3. Read their drafts carefully and make notes/annotations in response to the following “big picture” questions:

  • What did you like about the draft? How/why did you like it? How might the author build on that section?
  • What sections are confusing to you? How/why? Ask your classmates questions that would help you to make sense of the section.
  • Do you have any unanswered questions after you finished reading the draft? What are they?

4. Note: If you only say “this is great” or comment on commas and spelling, you will NOT get full credit. If it is a really good draft, try to break down how and why it is good. Make sure both you and the author can repeat the characteristics of “good” in future papers.

5. Record your feedback using the audio-recording technology you chose. Don’t worry about “scripting” your response, and time each recording between 3 and 5 minutes.

6. Post a link or download your file and send it to your classmates. If downloading a SoundCloud file, make sure your SoundCloud file is “public.”

7. Share-out: Take a screenshot of your resulting soundfile and post it to the comments thread.

Ground Zero Drafting

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Daniela Goulart

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Daniela Goulart

This activity assumes you are at the initial stage of composing and do not yet have a draft in hand. This activity will help you put some words down on the proverbial paper!

Activity

1. Open a word processing document (e.g., Word or Google Docs).

2. If you have a thesis statement or research question, type it at the top of the document.

3. For 10-15 minutes, write everything that comes to mind in response to your thesis statement or research question. You may want to start a timer.

4. Treat this initial drafting process as you would a freewrite.

  • Don’t worry about grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and mechanics.
  • Don’t worry about formatting or style.
  • Don’t worry about organization or coherence.
  • Do write continuously about your topic. Try not to stop. Just keep writing.
  • Do allow yourself to explore ideas you may not have previously envisioned exploring.
  • Do stop at the 15-minute mark to read and reflect on what you have written. Continue to Ground Zero Drafting – Part Two for tips on reflection and moving forward with your draft.

5. Read and reflect on what you composed during the freewrite. If possible, print your draft before following the reflection process below. If you cannot print, simply use the editing tools available in your word processing program.

6. Underline sentences that seem to convey “main ideas.” These are ideas that could potentially be elaborated on in paragraphs of their own.

7. Use different colors to highlight ideas that connect with one another.

8. Look for moments of “discovery.” These are instances in your draft where you wrote about an idea that you did not expect to write about but that actually relates well to your thesis statement or research question.

9. Strikethrough (cross out) irrelevant ideas.

10. Use the information you have discovered from this process as a starting point for Draft #2.

11. Share-out: Take a screenshot of your writing after you have underlined, highlighted, discovered, and crossed out ideas in the original draft.

Citation Outlining

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Oliver Hammond

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Oliver Hammond

Outlines can be a useful tool for physically organizing the research you have already conducted and your own ideas about the topic. There are a number of ways to construct an outline, but for this exercise we are asking you to first write a “scratch outline’ and then turn that into a “citation outline.”

Activity

1. Creating a scratch outline is a very informal construction of your paper’s main topics in a rough order of how you plan to put them in the paper. This helps you visualize how the flow of the paper will go from one topic to the next.

Example: hip hop and technology

  • Early hip hop history
  • Economics of the culture
  • Turntables
  • Synthesizers
  • Sampling
  • Autotune

2. The scratch outline is great for just giving yourself a rough idea of what you plan on talking about in your paper from paragraph to paragraph.

3. Next we will turn this scratch outline into a citation outline using the research that you have done up to this point.

4. The citation outline includes notes about the articles that you found and where they will fit into your paper based on the topics from your scratch outline. It should look something like this:

Example: hip hop and technology

  • Early hip hop history
    • Rose, 1994
    • Gray, 1995
    • Reynolds, 2002
    • Johnson, 1998
    • Dyson, 2004
  • Economics of the culture
    • Rose, 1994
    • Davies, 1995
    • O’Neill, 1997
  • Turntables
    • Miller, 1996
    • Davies, 1995
  • Synthesizers,
    • Miller, 1996
    • Reynolds, 2002
  • Sampling
    • Rose, 1994
    • Miller, 1996
    • Davies, 1995
  • Autotune
    • Smith, 2013

5. As you can see, having overlap among the categories is completely fine. It’s all about considering where the articles you have looked at fit into your outline based on how you have broken down your paper’s topics.

6. Share-out: Post your citation outline in the comments. If you did it on a physical piece of paper, you may take a picture of it and post it below instead.