Incorporating Secondary Sources

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Warren R.M. Stewart

Creative Commons licensed image posted at Flickr by Warren R.M. Stewart

When incorporating secondary sources into your argument, there are three crucial components you must include to document your sources properly:

  1. introducing the paraphrase/quotation;
  2. citing the source of the paraphrase/quotation;
  3. and connecting the paraphrase/quotation to your argument.

Introducing the Paraphrase/Quotation

  • Use a “signal phrase” or “author/source tag” to refer to the author or source before incorporating the actual paraphrase or quotation.
  • Use a complete sentence followed by a colon to anchor a direct quotation. Note that the “anchor” sentence must logically introduce the idea expressed in the quote.

Note: You’ll need to check the guidelines for the specific requirements of your formatting style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc). (APA format used here.)

Citing the Source

By signaling to your readers the name(s) of the author or source associated with your paraphrase or quotation, you have done part of the work of documenting your source–but there are a few more steps to ensure your citation is complete.

  • When page numbers are available, reference them in parentheses.
  • If you choose not to include a signal phrase, the author/source name must be included in the parentheses along with the page number.
  • If quoting directly, make sure to use quotation marks!
  • If paraphrasing, make sure it is clear where your ideas begin and end and where the paraphrase begins and ends.

Note: You’ll need to check the guidelines for the specific requirements of your formatting style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago, etc). (APA format used here.)

Examples

  1. Glenn (1994) argues that “when the delivery of purposeful silence is considered a strategic choice, its presence resonates with meaning and intention, just like that of the spoken word” (p. 282).
  2. Silence is often associated with passiveness; however, Glenn (1994) argues that silence can be active and rhetorically productive: “[W]hen the delivery of purposeful silence is considered a strategic choice, its presence resonates with meaning and intention, just like that of the spoken word” (p. 282).
  3. Although silence is often associated with passiveness, “when the delivery of purposeful silence is considered a strategic choice, its presence resonates with meaning and intention, just like that of the spoken word” (Glenn, 1994, p. 282).

Connecting to Your Argument

Finally, the paraphrase/quotation needs to clearly connect to the argument or main point of the paragraph. It’s the writer’s job to make sure the audience understands how the paraphrase/quotation supports the argument/main point.

Review this resource for some examples of connecting paraphrases and quotations to the main point.

Activity

1. Use the template below to draft a sentence that includes the 3 parts every quotation or paraphrase should include:

According to [insert author/source name], [insert paraphrase or quotation] [insert page number].

In their [insert copyright year of source] study, [insert author/source name] found [insert paraphrase or quotation][insert page number].

[insert author/source name] argues/explores/notes/examines [insert paraphrase or quotation][insert page number].

2.  Now, take one of your paraphrases or quotations from above and follow-up with a sentence or two that clearly connects it to your main point.

3.  Share-out: Post a copy or screenshot of your work to the comments thread.

24 thoughts on “Incorporating Secondary Sources

  1. Davis Moore

    According to Renzo Capitani, you should always design each sub component separately (478).

    In their 2004 study, Renzo Capitani found that designing in a 3D model software was the best approach (477).

    Renzo Capitani argues that finite element analysis is essential for a good Formula Car (479).

    In their 2004 study, Renzo Capitani found that designing in a 3D model software was the best approach (477). This allowed the design to be built faster and more efficiently. Also it allowed for easier testing and editing if there were any problems.

  2. Emily McClellan

    According to Dr. Liu, “clutch torque control along with engine torque control must be integrated for a better qualify design” (53).
    It is easy to give the engine design priority over clutch torque design, but Dr. Liu stresses the importance of clutch torque control because it must efficiently work with the engine. If these two parts are not designed with the other in mind, integration is extremely difficult if not impossible.

    In his 2013 study, Dr. Hau found that he could improve a car’s dynamic performance by “reducing shifting impacts and slipping frictional power” (430).

    Dr. How studied the fuzzy control theory for the steady transmission of a load (424).

  3. Shauna Richards

    According to Gerald L. Wilmer, “to provide a low frame rail height which, in turn, allows the vehicle to be manufactured with a load carrying surface of compartment which is also low to the group.” (6).
    In their 1991 study, Gerald L. Wilmet found that “to provide a low frame rail height which, in turn, allows the vehicle to be manufactured with a load carrying surface of compartment which is also low to the group.”(6).
    Gerald L. Wilmer notes “to provide a low frame rail height which, in turn, allows the vehicle to be manufactured with a load carrying surface of compartment which is also low to the group.” (6).

    Attachment:  L2L.docx

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